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Schnitzler Syndrome

Abstract

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NORD is very grateful to A. Simon, MD, PhD and H. de Koning, MD, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of General Internal Medicine, The Netherlands and the N4i Centre for Immunodeficiency and Autoinflammation, for assistance in the preparation of this report.

Synonyms of Schnitzler Syndrome

  • Schnitzler's syndrome

Disorder Subdivisions

  • IgG variant Schnitzler syndrome

General Discussion

Schnitzler syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a chronic reddish rash that resembles hives (urticaria) and elevated levels of a specific protein in the blood (monoclonal IgM gammopathy). Symptoms associated with Schnitzler syndrome may include repeated bouts of fever, joint inflammation (arthritis), joint pain (arthralgia), bone pain, and other findings such as enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). A monoclonal IgM gammopathy refers to the uncontrolled growth of a single clone (monoclonal) of plasma cells, which results in the abnormal accumulation of M-proteins (also known as immunoglobulin M or IgM) in the blood. These proteins are supposed to fight foreign substances in the body such as viruses and bacteria, but researchers suspect that they play a role in the development of Schnitzler syndrome. However, the specific role these proteins play and the exact cause of Schnitzler syndrome is unknown. Schnitzler syndrome is difficult to classify and some researchers have suggested that it is an acquired autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation due to an abnormality of the innate immune system. They are not the same as autoimmune disorders, in which the adaptive immune system malfunctions and mistakenly attacks healthy tissue.

Schnitzler Syndrome Resources

Organizations:

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