|55 Kenosia Avenue
Danbury, CT 06810
Toll Free: 1.800.999.6673
The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) web site, its databases, and the contents thereof are copyrighted by NORD. No part of the NORD web site, databases, or the contents may be copied in any way, including but not limited to the following: electronically downloading, storing in a retrieval system, or redistributing for any commercial purposes without the express written permission of NORD. Permission is hereby granted to print one hard copy of the information on an individual disease for your personal use, provided that such content is in no way modified, and the credit for the source (NORD) and NORD’s copyright notice are included on the printed copy. Any other electronic reproduction or other printed versions is strictly prohibited.
The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only. It should never be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. If you have questions regarding a medical condition, always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional. NORD’s reports provide a brief overview of rare diseases. For more specific information, we encourage you to contact your personal physician or the agencies listed as “Resources” on this report.
Copyright 1986, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2009, 2012
NORD is very grateful to Junko Oshima, Ph.D., Research Associate Professor, International Registry of Werner Syndrome, Department of Pathology, University of Washington, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
Werner Syndrome is a rare progressive disorder that is characterized by the appearance of unusually accelerated aging (progeria). Although the disorder is typically recognized by the third or fourth decades of life, certain characteristic findings are present beginning during adolescence and early adulthood.
Individuals with Werner Syndrome have an abnormally slow growth rate, and there is cessation of growth at puberty. As a result, affected individuals have short stature and low weight relative to height. By age 25, those with the disorder typically experience early graying (canities) and premature loss of scalp hair (alopecia). As the disease progresses, additional abnormalities include loss of the layer of fat beneath the skin (subcutaneous adipose tissue); severe wasting (atrophy) of muscle tissue in certain areas of the body; and degenerative skin changes, particularly in the facial area, the upper arms and hands, and the lower legs and feet (distal extremities). Due to degenerative changes affecting the facial area, individuals with Werner Syndrome may have unusually prominent eyes, a beaked or pinched nose, and/or other characteristic facial abnormalities.
Werner Syndrome may also be characterized by development of a distinctive high-pitched voice; eye abnormalities, including premature clouding of the lenses of the eyes (bilateral senile cataracts); and certain endocrine defects, such as impaired functioning of the ovaries in females or testes in males (hypogonadism) or abnormal production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas and resistance to the effects of insulin (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). In addition, individuals with Werner syndrome may develop progressive thickening and loss of elasticity of artery walls (arteriosclerosis). Affected blood vessels typically include the arteries that transport oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood to heart muscle (coronary arteries). Some affected individuals may also be susceptible to developing certain benign (noncancerous) or malignant tumors. Progressive arteriosclerosis, malignancies, and/or associated abnormalities may result in potentially life-threatening complications by approximately the fourth or fifth decade of life. Werner syndrome is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Children with Werner Syndrome often appear unusually thin and, during late childhood, have an unusually slow growth rate. In addition, there is absence of the growth spurt typically seen during adolescence. Affected individuals typically reach their final height by approximately 13 years of age. However, adult height may be reached as early as at age 10 or as late as at age 18. Weight is also unusually low, even relative to short stature.
Before age 20, most individuals with Werner Syndrome develop early graying and whitening of the scalp hair (canities). By about 25 years of age, affected individuals may experience premature loss of scalp hair (alopecia) as well as loss of the eyebrows and eyelashes. In addition, hair under the arms (axillary hair), in the pubic area, and on the trunk may be unusually sparse or absent. According to reports in the medical literature, the hair loss seen in those with Werner Syndrome may occur secondary to impaired functioning of the ovaries in females or the testes in males (hypogonadism), an endocrine condition associated with deficient growth and sexual development. Both males and females with Werner Syndrome may be affected by hypogonadism. As a result, affected males usually have an unusually small penis and small testes. Some females with the disorder may fail to develop secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., appearance of axillary and pubic hair, breast development, menstruation) and have poorly developed genitals. In other affected females, menstruation may be spare and irregular. Due to hypogonadism, most of those with the disorder may be infertile. However, there have been reports in the literature confirming that some affected males and females have reproduced.
In addition to premature graying and hair loss, individuals with Werner Syndrome are affected by other progressive degenerative changes, including gradual loss of the layer of fat beneath the skin (subcutaneous adipose tissue); severe wasting (atrophy) of muscles within the hands, legs, and feet; and premature, generalized loss of bone density (osteoporosis), a condition that may cause or contribute to repeated fractures following minor trauma. Dental abnormalities may also be present, including abnormal development and premature loss of teeth. In approximately one third of individuals with Werner Syndrome, there is also an abnormal accumulation of calcium salts (calcification) in and associated hardening of soft tissues (e.g., ligaments, tendons), particularly those of the elbows, knees, and ankles. In addition, due to progressive atrophy of the vocal cords, most individuals with the disorder develop an abnormally high-pitched voice. In other cases, the voice may be squeaky or unusually hoarse.
By approximately 25 years of age, individuals with Werner Syndrome also develop progressive skin changes, particularly affecting the facial area, the upper arms and hands, and the lower legs and feet (distal extremities). For example, there is skin wasting (atrophy) over areas in which there is depletion of fatty (adipose), connective, and muscle tissue, resulting in the appearance of unusually shiny, "waxy," smooth, or hardened ("scleroderma-like") skin patches that may adhere to underlying tissues. Affected areas may be prone to developing open sores (ulcers) due to decreased supply of oxygenated blood to tissues (ischemia). The ulcers may be chronic and slow healing.
Many individuals with Werner Syndrome also have additional skin abnormalities. Skin of the arms and legs may develop abnormally increased coloration (hyperpigmentation), decreased coloration (hypopigmentation), or abnormal widening of certain small underlying blood vessels, causing associated redness (telangiectasias). In addition, skin of the palms, of the soles, and overlying certain prominent joints, such as the elbows and knees, may become unusually thickened (hyperkeratosis) and tend to develop ulcers due to destruction of surface tissues.
Due to atrophic changes of the skin and underlying tissues in the facial area, affected individuals may have a distinctive, "pinched" facial appearance including unusually prominent eyes; stiff ears that have lost their elasticity; and a thin, beaked or pinched nose. Premature graying and loss of hair contribute to the characteristic appearance. According to reports in the medical literature, in most individuals with Werner Syndrome, the appearance of premature aging is apparent by approximately age 30 to 40.
Werner Syndrome is also typically characterized by the premature onset of senile cataracts, a condition in which there is loss of transparency of the lenses of the eyes. In individuals with Werner Syndrome, cataracts typically affect both eyes (bilateral) and have an abrupt onset within the third or fourth decade of life. (Senile cataracts typically develop in individuals over age 50.) In some cases, other abnormalities of the eyes may also be present, such as an accumulation of calcium deposits within the transparent region in the front of the eyes (corneal calcification), inflammation of the middle and innermost layers of the eyes (chorioretinitis), degeneration of the nerve cells (rods and cones) of the retina that respond to light (retinitis pigmentosa), and/or progressive degeneration of the central region of the retina (senile macular degeneration). The degree of associated visual impairment depends upon the severity and/or combination of eye abnormalities present.
Up to one third of individuals with Werner Syndrome may also have mild neurologic abnormalities. These may include loss of certain reflexes (deep-tendon reflexes) or the perception of abnormal sensations, such as itching, tingling, or burning, in the absence of stimuli (paresthesias). In addition, in some cases, mental retardation may also be present.
Approximately 45 percent of affected individuals also develop non-insulin-dependent (or type II) diabetes mellitus. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the effects of the hormone insulin and abnormal insulin secretion by the pancreas, resulting in increased levels of the simple sugar glucose in the blood. (Insulin regulates glucose levels in the blood by promoting the movement of glucose into cells for energy production.) This form of diabetes usually develops in individuals of approximately 50 to 60 years. However, in those with Werner Syndrome, the condition may become apparent by about age 35. Affected individuals may have no apparent symptoms (asymptomatic) at diagnosis or experience increased urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), increased hunger (polyphagia), and/or other characteristic symptoms. In addition, those with this form of diabetes may be susceptible to diabetic coma due to severely reduced levels of fluid within cells (hyperosmolar nonketotic coma). According to reports in the medical literature, although non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus may be associated with certain long-term complications, such as nerve damage (neuropathy), impaired kidney function (nephropathy), and damage to blood vessels within the retina (diabetic retinopathy), such complications have not been reported in affected individuals with Werner Syndrome.
Werner Syndrome is also characterized by severe, progressive, often widespread thickening and loss of elasticity of artery walls (arteriosclerosis). In some affected arteries, there may be abnormal accumulations of calcium deposits within the middle coat (tunica media) of the arteries and progressive destruction and replacement of the arteries' muscle and elastic fibers with fibrous tissue (Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis). Arteries affected by this form of arteriosclerosis may include those that transport oxygen-rich blood to heart muscle (coronary arteries) or certain arteries of the legs (peripheral vascular disease). Arteriosclerosis of peripheral blood vessels may cause or aggravate skin wasting (atrophy) and ulceration. In addition, abnormal calcium deposits may accumulate within certain heart valves, such as the valve situated where the body's major artery (aorta) arises from the lower left chamber of the heart (aortic valve) and the valve located between the left upper and lower heart chambers (mitral valve). Progressive arteriosclerosis may lead to episodes of chest pain due to deficient oxygen supply to heart muscle (anginal attacks); progressive inability of the heart to effectively pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body (heart failure); localized loss of heart muscle caused by interruption of its blood supply (myocardial infarction or heart attack); and/or other potentially life-threatening complications.
Approximately 10 percent of individuals with Werner Syndrome may also have an increased predisposition to certain tumors, particularly malignancies that arise within bone (osteosarcoma) or benign (noncancerous), slow-growing tumors of the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningiomas).
Due to progressive arteriosclerosis, malignancies, and/or other associated abnormalities, many individuals with Werner Syndrome may experience life-threatening complications by approximately the fourth or fifth decade of life.
Werner Syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Human traits, including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes, one received from the father and one from the mother.
In recessive disorders, the condition does not appear unless a person inherits the same defective gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk of transmitting the disease to the children of a couple, both of whom are carriers for a recessive disorder, is 25 percent. Fifty percent of their children risk being carriers of the disease, but generally will not show symptoms of the disorder. Twenty-five percent of their children may receive both normal genes, one from each parent, and will be genetically normal (for that particular trait). The risk is the same for each pregnancy.
The parents of some individuals with Werner Syndrome have been closely related by blood (consanguineous). In these cases, if both parents carry the same disease gene, there is a higher-than-normal risk that their children may inherit the two disease genes necessary for the development of the disease.
Researchers have determined that Werner Syndrome is caused by abnormal changes (mutations) of a gene (known as the WRN gene) located on the short arm of chromosome 8 (8p12-11.2).* More than 50 different mutations of the WRN gene have been identified in individuals with the disorder.
*Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of all body cells. They carry the genetic characteristics of each individual. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, with an unequal 23rd pair of X and Y chromosomes for males and two X chromosomes for females. Each chromosome has a short arm designated as "p" and a long arm identified by the letter "q." Chromosomes are further subdivided into bands that are numbered.
According to researchers, the WRN gene encodes for a "helicase" protein, suggesting that impaired DNA metabolism is involved in the premature aging seen in individuals with the disorder. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes occurring within bodily tissues. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the carrier of the genetic code within cells, has a coiled (helical), ladder-like structure and is composed of strands of particular chemical groups. DNA "helicase" proteins are thought to promote the "unwinding" of DNA during certain cellular activities, such as the repair of damaged DNA and the separation of identical chromosomes (chromosomal segregation) into two "daughter cells" during cellular division and reproduction. Researchers suggest that Werner Syndrome is due to complete loss of function of the helicase protein encoded by the WRN gene. The specific function of the helicase protein in preventing premature aging remains unclear.
However, during laboratory (in vitro) studies of samples of skin cells (cultured human fibroblasts), researchers have demonstrated that the cells from individuals without the disorder may multiply approximately 60 times ("population doublings") whereas Werner Syndrome fibroblasts may reproduce only up to about 20 times. Due to such findings, some researchers have suggested that WRN is essentially a "counting gene," regulating the total number of times that human cells may divide and reproduce. Such researchers speculate that mutations of the WRN gene may result in premature inhibition of DNA replication processes (synthesis) and early cellular aging (senescence), events that typically occur later in normal, aging human cells.
Researchers have also observed a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., random translocations) in cultured skin cells (fibroblasts) and cultured white blood cells (lymphocytes) derived from certain cell lines (clones) in individuals with Werner Syndrome. Such findings (sometimes referred to as "variegated translocation mosaicism") suggest that "chromosome breakage" may be characteristic of or play some role in the disease process. However, the specific implications of such findings remain unknown and further research is required.
Werner Syndrome is a rare disorder that affects males and females in equal numbers. Since the disorder was originally described in the medical literature in 1904 (O. Werner), more than 500 cases have been reported. The disorder's frequency has been estimated at one to 20 per one million individuals in the United States. Although certain associated findings are present beginning during childhood, puberty, and young adulthood, the disorder is most frequently recognized in the third or fourth decades of life.
Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of Werner Syndrome. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is a very rare disorder of childhood characterized by premature aging, short stature, and characteristic facial features. The primary symptoms of this disorder are those associated with the aging process. Children with this disease age very rapidly and suffer with disorders of the aged while they are young. At approximately 10 years of age, most children with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome attain the height of an average 3 year old child. Arthritis often effects bone joints during childhood and adolescence. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
Gottron's Syndrome (Acrogeria) is a mild, inherited form of premature aging (progeria) characterized by abnormally small hands and feet with thin and delicate skin. From infancy on, children with this disorder appear older than their actual age. The skin is unusually thin and parchment-like on the hands and feet. The hands and feet remain abnormally small into adulthood. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Gottron" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
DeBarsy Syndrome is a rare disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. The main characteristics include degeneration of the elastic tissue in the skin (Cutis Laxa), involuntary movements of the arms and legs (athetosis), cloudy corneas of the eyes, large prominent ears, and loss of muscle tone. Other symptoms may include unusual flexibility of the small joints, a forehead that protrudes outward (frontal bossing), and/or short stature. The loss of elasticity of the skin leads to an aged wrinkled appearance. (For more information on this disorder, choose "DeBarsy" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
Mulvihill-Smith Syndrome is an extremely rare inherited disorder associated with premature aging. It is characterized by short stature, a small head (microcephaly), an aged appearance to the face, the loss of fatty layers under the skin (subcutaneous), multiple pigmented skin blemishes (nevi), hearing loss, and/or deficiencies of the immune system. This disease can occur in childhood or adolescence. Mulvihill-Smith Syndrome has been reported in only four individuals in the medical literature.
Storm Syndrome (Werner-like Syndrome) is an extremely rare inherited disorder associated with premature aging and heart disease. Other symptoms during adolescence may include the loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, and the thinning and graying of scalp hair. The skin over the hands and face becomes tight with a wrinkled appearance. Some affected individuals also have pain and impairment of joint function.
Combined Defect of Growth Factors (Werner-like Syndrome due to Combined Growth Factor Deficiency) is an extremely rare inherited disorder. The symptoms of this disorder are similar to those of Werner Syndrome and include the loss of the fatty layers on the arms and legs, a beak-like nose, a small jaw, and/or a narrow mouth. Other symptoms may include impaired joint function, flat feet, and thin, tight skin.
Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome is an inherited skin disorder characterized by abnormal redness of the skin caused by congested and obstructed small blood vessels (capillaries). Eventually the capillaries may become obstructed. Most people with Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome have small stature, loss of muscle, and red coloring of the skin. Some people are abnormally sensitive to light (photosensitivity) and may develop cataracts during adolescence. Other symptoms may include underdeveloped teeth and nails, unusually small hands and feet, malformed or missing thumbs, and/or sparse and prematurely gray hair or baldness. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Rothmund-Thomson" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
In some cases, Werner Syndrome may be recognized clinically as early as approximately age 15, based upon a thorough clinical evaluation, characteristic physical findings (e.g., absence of growth spurt at puberty, short stature, low weight), and a careful patient and family history. However, the disorder often may not be recognized or confirmed until the third or fourth decades of life, once certain distinctive symptoms and findings are noted (e.g., premature graying and hair loss, distinctive voice, loss of subcutaneous tissue, muscular atrophy, skin changes, bilateral senile catracts, etc.).
Specialized imaging studies and laboratory tests may be conducted to detect, confirm, or characterize certain abnormalities potentially associated with the disorder. For example, eye specialists (ophthalmologists) may regularly monitor affected individuals for the development of cataracts with certain measures, such as use of a specialized instrument that enables visualization of the inside of the eyes (ophthalmoscope). If cataracts are detected, an illuminated microscope (slit lamp) may be used to examine the internal structures of the front regions of the eyes, enabling ophthalmologists to determine the specific location and extent of the cataracts.
Diagnostic testing may include monitoring of blood sugar levels to ensure prompt detection of diabetes mellitus, bone scans and blood tests for osteoporosis, and/or other studies. In addition, thorough cardiac evaluations and ongoing monitoring may also be performed (e.g., clinical examinations, X-ray studies, specialized cardiac tests) to assess associated cardiovascular abnormalities and determine appropriate disease management. Individuals with Werner Syndrome should also be regularly monitored as necessary to ensure the prompt detection and appropriate treatment of certain malignancies or benign tumors that may occur in association with the disorder (e.g., osteosarcoma, meningioma).
In some cases, specialized laboratory tests may be performed on cultured skin cells (fibroblasts) from affected individuals, demonstrating abnormally decreased replication of Werner Syndrome fibroblasts. Evaluation of the chromosomal make-up (karyotype) within the nuclei of cultured fibroblasts and certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) may reveal a high frequency of certain chromosomal rearrangements (variegated translocation mosaicism). (For more information, please see the "Causes" section of this report above.) In addition, according to several investigators, urine tests may reveal elevated levels of hyaluronic acid, a complex carbohydrate that is present in the spaces between certain cells (intercellular spaces) within certain connective tissues. The implications of this finding are not understood.
Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis of Werner syndrome may be achieved through molecular testing of the WRN gene. Molecular sequencing of the WRN gene to detect disease-causing mutations, as well as biochemical testing to quantitate the amount of WRN protein produced by cells, is available on a clinical basis.
The treatment of Werner Syndrome is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. Disorder management may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists who may need to systematically and comprehensively plan an affected individual's treatment. Such specialists may include internists; physicians who diagnose and treat disorders of the skeleton, muscles, joints, and other related tissues (orthopedists); physicians who diagnose and treat abnormalities of the heart and its major blood vessels; eye specialists (ophthalmologists); physicians who diagnose and treat disorders of the endocrine system (endocrinologists); and/or other health care professionals.
Specific therapies for individuals with Werner Syndrome are symptomatic and supportive. According to reports in the medical literature, diabetes mellitus is typically mild and may often be managed with dietary changes and appropriate medications by mouth to decrease elevated sugar (glucose) levels in the blood (oral hypoglycemic medications).
In affected individuals with cataracts, treatment may include surgical removal of the clouded lens and implantation of a substitute lens (intraocular lens) or prescription of corrective glasses or contact lenses. Some physicians report that individuals with Werner Syndrome may have a significantly increased risk of separation of surgical wound layers (wound dehiscence) and/or other complications (e.g., corneal endothelial decompensation). Therefore, these physicians recommend that special precautions be taken during such surgical procedures (e.g., small surgical incisions, avoidance of local or systemic cortisone).
In individuals with Werner Syndrome, measures to manage arteriosclerosis and associated cardiovascular abnormalities are symptomic and supportive. For example, in those with episodes of chest pain due to deficient oxygen supply to heart muscle (anginal attacks), treatment may include the use of certain medications that may help to minimize or manage such symptoms.
If benign or malignant tumors develop in association with Werner Syndrome, appropriate treatment measures may vary depending upon the specific tumor type present; whether the tumor is benign or malignant; stage, grade, and/or extent of disease; and/or other factors. Depending upon such factors, treatment methods may include surgery, use of certain anticancer drugs (chemotherapy), radiation therapy, and/or other measures.
Genetic counseling will be of benefit for individuals with Werner Syndrome and their families.
Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. Government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.
For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:
Tollfree: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
The University of Washington is conducting extensive research on Werner Syndrome and offers clinical testing for the disorder. The University maintains an International Registry that collects and distributes clinical information and samples for investigative research. The Registry is dedicated to expanding the project to include clinical data and mutation information on as many affected individuals as possible. For more information about Werner Syndrome and the International Registry, contact:
George M. Martin, M.D.
International Registry of Werner Syndrome
University of Washington
Department of Pathology
Health Science Building K543
Seattle, WA 98195-7470
(206) 543-5088 (phone)
(206) 685-8356 (fax)
Home Page: http://www.wernersyndrome.org
American Society of Clinical Oncology
2318 Mill Road Suite 800
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone #: 571-483-1780
800 #: 888-651-3038
Home page: http://www.cancer.net/
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Phone #: 301-251-4925
800 #: 888-205-2311
Home page: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/
University of Washington Department of Pathology
Health Science Building Room K543
1959 NE Pacific Street
Seattle, WA 98195-7470
Phone #: 206-543-5088
800 #: --
Home page: http://www.wernersyndrome.org/registry/registry.html
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Phone #: 914-997-4488
800 #: 888-663-4637
Home page: http://www.marchofdimes.com
Office of Communications and Government Relations
6610 Rockledge Drive, MSC 6612
Bethesda, MD 20892-6612
Phone #: 301-496-5717
800 #: 866-284-4107
Home page: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/
31 Center Drive, MSC 2292
Bethesda, MD 20892
Phone #: 301-496-1752
800 #: 800-222-2225
Home page: http://www.nih.gov/nia
2 Bourbon Street
Peabody, MA 01960 USA
Phone #: 978-535-2594
800 #: --
Home page: http://www.progeriaresearch.org
1649 North Pacana Way
Green Valley, AZ 85614 USA
Phone #: N/A
800 #: --
Home page: http://www.rare-cancer.org
Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th Ed.: James B. Wyngaarden and Lloyd H. Smith, Jr., Editors; W.B. Saunders Co., 1992. P. 1145.
Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, 5th Ed.: Kenneth L. Jones, Editor; W. B. Saunders Co., 1997. Pp. 142-43.
Syndromes of the Head and Neck, 3rd Ed.: Robert J. Gorlin, M. Michael Cohen, Jr., and L. Stefan Levin, Editors; Oxford University Press, 1990. Pp. 485-87.
Birth Defects Encyclopedia: Mary Louise Buyse, Editor-In-Chief; Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1990. Pp. 1777-78.
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 14th Ed.: Richard E. Behrman, et al.; W.B. Saunders Co., 1992. P. 407.
Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 3rd Ed.: Sergio I. Magalini, Sabina C. Magalini, and Giovanni de Francisci, Editors; J.B. Lippincott Company, 1990. P. 930.
WRN Mutations in Werner Syndrome. M.J. Moser et al.; Hum Mutat (1999; 13). Pp. 271-79.
Mutations in the Consensus Helicase Domains of the Werner Syndrome Gene. C.E. Yu et al.; Am J Hum Genet (1997; 60). Pp. 330-41.
Homozygous and Compound Heterozygous Mutations at the Werner Syndrome Locus. J. Oshima et al.; Hum Molec Genet (1996; 5). Pp. 1909-13.
Positional Cloning of the Werner's Syndrome Gene. C.E. Yu et al.; Science (1996; 272). Pp. 258-62.
Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Studies of Chromosome 8p11.1-21.1 Markers and Werner Syndrome. C.E. Yu et al.; Am J Hum Genet (1994; 55). Pp. 356-64.
A Patient with Werner's Syndrome and Osteosarcoma Presenting as Scleroderma. J. Nakura, et al.; Gerontology (1993; 39(Suppl 1)). Pp. 11-15.
Ophthalmological Aspects in Patients with Werner's Syndrome. K.W. Ruprecht et al.; Arch Gerontol Geriat (1989; 9). Pp. 263-70.
Variegated Translocation in Mosaicism in Human Skin Fibroblast Cultures. H. Hoehn et al.; Cytogenet Cell Genet (1975; 15). Pp. 282-98.
FROM THE INTERNET
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Victor A. McKusick, Editor; Johns Hopkins University, Last Edit Date 6/3/99, Entry Number 277700.
Report last updated: 2012/01/04 00:00:00 GMT+0