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Meningioma

Synonyms of Meningioma

  • Arachnoidal Fibroblastoma
  • Dural Endothelioma
  • Leptomeningioma
  • Meningeal Fibroblastoma

Disorder Subdivisions

  • Frontal Tumor, Meningioma
  • Parietal Tumor, Meningioma
  • Temporal Tumor, Meningioma

General Discussion

Meningiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors, classified as brain tumors, but actually growing in the three protective membranes that surround the brain (meninges). Sometimes they cause thickening or thinning of adjoining skull bones. Meningiomas do not spread to other areas of the body.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Meningioma vary according to the size and location of the tumor.

FRONTAL TUMORS: These type of tumors can produce progressive weakness on one side of the body or in a localized area such as a leg. They can also cause seizures that may be limited to one area (focal), or generalized. Mental changes may also occur.

Seizures are caused by a disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain. They are usually sudden, brief attacks of altered consciousness, unusual muscle movements, sensations, and/or behavior. The patient with seizures may fall, experience jerky movements, appear to be in a daze or asleep. A focal seizure is localized in one part of the body. (For more information, choose "Epilepsy" as your search term in the Rare Disease database).

Mental changes may include drowsiness, listlessness, dullness, or personality changes.

If the tumor is in the dominant hemisphere, which is the left side of the brain for right handed persons, it can produce speech difficulties (aphasia). Frontal lobe tumors can also produce loss of sense of smell, blurred or double vision, and loss of bladder control (incontinence or sudden, unexpected urination).

TEMPORAL TUMORS: Temporal tumors, particularly in the non-dominant hemisphere, usually cause no symptoms other than seizures. However, some patients loose the ability to recognize and name objects (anomia) if the tumor is in the dominant hemisphere.

PARIETAL TUMORS: Meningiomas over the parietal lobe, which lies behind the frontal lobe, may produce either generalized seizures or focal sensory seizures which are characterized by a strange sensation (paresthesia) in a particular part of the body. The inability to identify an object by touching it (astereognosis) can also be caused by meningiomas of the parietal lobe.

The most common symptom associated with brain tumors is headache. However, not all tumors cause headaches.

Causes

The cause of Meningioma is unknown. Meningiomas usually develop from cell clusters associated with arachnoidal villi.

Affected Populations

Meningiomas most frequently occur in middle-aged persons. They are more common in women than in men by a ratio of 3:2. These types of tumors are rare in childhood, and they seldom affect Americans of African descent.

Related Disorders

N/A

Standard Therapies

Many meningiomas can be completely removed surgically. Some, due to their location, can only be partially removed. In these areas of the brain, complete removal would carry the risk of damaging a major artery or of destroying a part of the brain. However, even partial removal should provide some relief from symptoms. Because meningiomas may grow so slowly, it may be many years before further surgery may be necessary. Radiation and chemotherapy are usually not used to treat meningiomas.

If the patient with Meningioma has muscle weakness, coordination problems, or speech impairment, physical, occupational, or speech therapy may be helpful. Complete recovery from symptoms is possible after surgery.

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government website.

For information about clinical trials being conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:

Toll free: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
Email: prpl@cc.nih.gov

For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
www.centerwatch.com

Meningioma Resources

NORD Member Organizations:

(To become a member of NORD, an organization must meet established criteria and be approved by the NORD Board of Directors. If you're interested in becoming a member, please contact Susan Olivo, Membership Manager, at solivo@rarediseases.org.)

Other Organizations:

References

REFERENCES
Books for patients are available from the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) and include the following.

A Primer of Brain Tumors: A Patient's Reference Manual. 7th Edition
Dictionary for Brain Tumor Patients.

TEXTBOOKS
Beers MH, Berkow R., eds. The Merck Manual, 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999:1446-47.

Berkow R., ed. The Merck Manual-Home Edition. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1997:379-80.

Adams, RD, et al., eds. Principles of Neurology. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Companies; 1997:658-59.

REVIEW ARTICLES
McElveen JT Jr, Dorfman BE, Fukushima T. Petroclival tumors: a synthesis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:1219-30.

De Jesus O, Toledo MM. Surgical management of meningioma en plaque of the sphenoid ridge. Surg Neurol. 2001. 55:265-69.

Akunwunmi J, Powell M. Understanding cerebral tumours. Practitioner. 2001;245:494, 498-502.

JOURNAL ARTICLES
Liu JK, Forman S, Hershewe Gl, et al. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas: visual improvement after stereotactic radiotherapy. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:950-57.

Boljesikova E, Chorvath M. Radiation-induced meningiomas. Neoplasma. 2001;48:442-44.

Ashkan K, Rose P, Walter P. Cystic meningioma: challenges in the diagnosis. Br J Neurosurg. 2002;16:72-73.

Custer BS, Koepell TD, Mueller BA. The association between breast carcinoma and meningioma in women. Cancer. 2002;94:1626-35.

Ciric I, Rosenblatt S. Suprasellar meningiomas. Neurosurgery. 2001;49:1372-77.

The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only. It should never be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. If you have questions regarding a medical condition, always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional. NORD’s reports provide a brief overview of rare diseases. For more specific information, we encourage you to contact your personal physician or the agencies listed as “Resources” on this report.

Report last updated: 2008/05/23 00:00:00 GMT+0

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