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NORD would like to acknowledge the assistance provided via an education grant from the Hitachi Foundation for updating this report. Special assistance for editorial updates on content matter in this report has been provided by Jessica Feeley (Editor) on behalf of Dystonia Medical Research Foundation.
Synonyms of Dystonia
- Torsion Dystonia
- Blepharospasm (Benign Essential Blepharospasm[BEB])
- Cervical Dystonia (Spasmodic Torticollis[ST])
- Childhood-onset Dystonia
- Dopa-responsive Dystonia (DRD)
- Early-onset Dystonia
- Focal Dystonia
- Generalized Dystonia
- Late-onset Dystonia
- Myoclonic Dystonia
- Oromandibular Dystonia
- Paroxysmal Dystonia
- Paroxysmal Dystonia Choreathetosis
- Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dystonia (PKD)
- Primary Dystonia
- Rapid-onset Dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP)
- Secondary Dystonia
- Segmental Dystonia
- Spasmodic Dysphonia (SD)
- Spasmodic Torticollis (Cervical Dystonia)
- Tardive Dyskinesia
- Tardive Dystonia
- Writer's Cramp
- X-Linked Dystonia-parkinsonism
Dystonia is a group of movement disorders that vary in their symptoms, causes, progression, and treatments. This group of neurological conditions is generally characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that force the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements and positions (postures).
Dystonia may be focal (affecting an isolated body part), segmental (affecting adjacent body areas, or generalized (affecting many major muscle groups simultaneously). There are many different causes for dystonia. Genetic as well as non-genetic factors contribute to all forms of dystonia. The most characteristic finding associated with dystonia is twisting, repetitive movements that affect the neck, torso, limbs, eyes, face, vocal chords, and/or a combination of these muscle groups.
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