NORD is very grateful to Micheline M. Mathews-Roth, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
Synonyms of Erythropoietic Protoporphyria
- Erythrohepatic Protoporphyria
- No subdivisions found.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme ferrochelatase (FECH). Due to abnormally low levels of this enzyme, excessive amounts of protoporphyrin accumulate in the bone marrow, blood plasma, and red blood cells. The major symptom of this disorder is hypersensitivity of the skin to sunlight and some types of artificial light, such as fluorescent lights (photosensitivity). After exposure to light, the skin may become itchy and red. Affected individuals may also experience a burning sensation on their skin. The hands, arms, and face are the most commonly affected areas. Some people with erythropoietic protoporphyria may also have complications related to liver and gallbladder function. Erythropoietic protoporphyria is inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait with poor penetrance.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria is one of a group of disorders known as the porphyrias. The porphyrias are all characterized by abnormally high levels of particular chemicals (porphyrins) in the body due to deficiencies of certain enzymes essential to the synthesis of hemoglobin. There are at least seven types of porphyria. The symptoms associated with the various types of porphyria differ, depending upon the specific enzyme that is deficient. It is important to note that people who have one type of porphyria do not develop any of the other types.
The most common symptom of erythropoietic protoporphyria is hypersensitivity of the skin to sunlight and some types of artificial light (photosensitivity), with pain, itching, and/or burning of the skin occurring after exposure to sunlight and occasionally to fluorescent light. Affected individuals may also exhibit abnormal accumulations of body fluid under affected areas (edema) and/or persistent redness or inflammation of the skin (erythema). In rare cases, affected areas of the skin may develop sac-like lesions (vesicles or bullae), scar, and/or become discolored (hyperpigmentation) if exposure to sunlight is prolonged. However, scarring and/or discoloring of the skin is uncommon and rarely severe. These affected areas of skin may become abnormally thick. In addition, in some cases, affected individuals may also exhibit malformations of the nails. The severity and degree of photosensitivity is different from case to case. Photosensitivity is often seen during infancy; however, in some cases, it may not occur until adolescence or adulthood.
In some affected individuals, the flow of bile through the gallbladder and bile ducts (biliary system) may be interrupted (cholestasis) causing gallstones (cholelithiasis) to form. In turn, such stones can cause obstruction and/or inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis). Rarely, affected individuals may also develop liver damage that, in very severe cases, may lead to liver failure requiring transplantation.
Symptoms usually start in childhood but diagnosis is often delayed since blistering is not common and, because the porphyrins are insoluble, they usually escape detection on urinanalysis. The diagnosis is made upon finding increased levels of the protoporphyrin in the plasma or red blood cells.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria is a rare disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait with poor penetrance. Human traits, including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes, one received from the father and one from the mother.
In dominant disorders, a single copy of the disease gene (received from either the mother or father) will be expressed "dominating" the other normal gene and resulting in the appearance of the disease. The risk of transmitting the disorder from affected parent to offspring is 50 percent for each pregnancy regardless of the sex of the resulting child. The risk is the same for each pregnancy.
The symptoms of erythropoietic protoporphyria develop due to excessive levels of a chemical called protoporphyrin that accumulates in certain tissues of the body (i.e., the plasma, red blood cells, and the liver). Excessive protoporphyrin levels occur as the result of abnormally low levels of the enzyme ferrochelatase (FECH).
There are several different allelic variants of erythropoietic protoporphyria. An allele is any of a series of two or more genes that may occupy the same position (locus) on a specific chromosome. Symptoms of these allelic variants of erythropoietic protoporphyria are predominantly the same; however, one type may be inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait.
The gene that is responsible for regulating the production of the enzyme ferrochelatase (FECH) has been located on the long arm of chromosome 18 (18q21.3). Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of all body cells. They carry the genetic characteristics of each individual. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22, with an unequal 23rd pair of X and Y chromosomes for males, and two X chromosomes for females. Each chromosome has a short arm designated as "p" and a long arm identified by the letter "q".
Some people who have inherited this defective gene may have slightly elevated levels of protoporphyrin in the body but will not exhibit the symptoms of erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria is a very rare inherited disorder that affects males and females in equal numbers. It is estimated that the disorder occurs in about 1 in about 74,300 individuals. The onset of symptoms affecting the skin usually occurs in infancy; however, in some cases, onset may not occur until adolescence or adulthood. More than 300 cases of EPP have been reported in the medical literature.
Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those of EPP. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:
There are several other types of porphyrias, all of which involve deficiencies of specific enzymes. Most of the symptoms of these porphyrias are not similar to the symptoms found in erythropoietic protoporphyria. Individuals with porphyria cutanea tarda and congenital erythropoietic porphyria may develop skin lesions; however, these lesions do not resemble the skin lesions found in EPP. It is important to note that individuals with one type of porphyria do not develop any of the other types. In addition, there are skin disorders characterized by hypersensitivity to artificial light and sunlight besides EPP, such as xeroderma pigmentosum and epidermolysis bullosa. The skin lesions in these disorders do not resemble the skin lesions in EPP. (For more information on these disorders, choose "Porphyria and Epidermolysis Bullosa" as your search terms in the Rare Disease Database.)
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a group of rare inherited skin disorders characterized by hypersensitivity of sunlight and some types of artificial light, with skin blistering occurring after such exposure. In some cases, pain and blistering may occur immediately after contact with sunlight or artificial light. Acute sunburn and persistent redness or inflammation of the skin (erythema) are also early symptoms of xeroderma pigmentosum. In most cases, these symptoms may be apparent immediately after birth or occur within the next three years. Other skin symptoms of xeroderma pigmentosum may include discolorations of the skin, weak and fragile skin, and/or scarring of the skin. Xeroderma pigmentosum also affects the eyes; the most common symptom being an extreme intolerance to light (photophobia). Additional symptoms may include some neurological impairments, short stature, an increased susceptibility to some forms of cancer (e.g., skin cancer). There are several types of xeroderma pigmentosum; in most cases, XP is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. (For more information on this disorder, choose "Xeroderma Pigmentosum" as your search terms in the Rare Disease Database).
The diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) may be made by a thorough clinical evaluation, characteristic physical findings, and specialized laboratory tests. EPP is usually diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, due to characteristic skin symptoms. The diagnosis may be confirmed by testing the red blood cells (erythrocytes) for increased levels of protoporphyrin.
Avoidance of sunlight will be of benefit to individuals with erythropoietic protoporphyria. The use of topical sunscreens, double layers of clothing, long sleeves, hats, and sunglasses will also benefit photosensitive individuals. Individuals with EPP may also benefit from window tinting or using vinyls or films to cover the windows in their car or house. Before tinting or shading car windows, affected individuals should check with their local Registry of Motor Vehicles to ensure that such measures do not violate any local codes.
In erythropoietic protoporphyria, a high potency form of oral beta-carotene (Lumitene, Tishcon) may be given to improve an affected individual's tolerance of sunlight. For more information on this treatment, contact the organizations listed at the end of this report (i.e., American Porphyria Foundation and the EPPREF) and Mr. George McShane of the Tishcon Corp. (1-800-848-8442). In some cases, the drug cholestyramine may be given to alleviate skin symptoms and lower the protoporphyrin levels in the body.
When iron deficiency is present, iron supplements may be given. A type of bile acid (chenodeoxycholic acid) may be prescribed to help the liver dispose of excess protoporphyrin, and activated charcoal or cholestyramine may be used to interrupt the circulation of protoporphyrin through the liver and intestines.
Estrogens and drugs that can impair bile flow should be given cautiously under the supervision of a physician. In addition, individuals with high levels of protoporphyrin in the plasma and red blood cells should be observed closely by a physician for possible liver malfunction that could eventually lead to liver failure.
Genetic counseling will be of benefit for affected individuals and their families. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.
Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. Government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.
For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:
Tollfree: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
The orphan product L-Cysteine is being tested for the prevention and reduction of photosensitivity in erythropoietic protoporphyria. More research is needed to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of this drug for the treatment EPP. For more information, contact:
Micheline M. Mathews-Roth, M.D.
Harvard Medical School
181 Longwood Ave
Boston, MA 02115-5804
Red blood cell transfusions have also been used to treat some people with EPP. In some affected individuals with severe liver disease, liver transplantations have been performed. Extreme caution should be used by physicians considering these treatment options; each particular case should be evaluated on its own merits.
Organizations related to Erythropoietic Protoporphyria
Thoene JG., ed. Physicians' Guide to Rare Diseases. Montvale, NJ: Dowden Publishing Company Inc; 1995:233.
Larson DE. ed. Mayo Clinic Family Health Book. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc; 1996:961.
Beers MH, Berkow R., eds. The Merck Manual, 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999:195-99.
Berkow R., ed. The Merck Manual-Home Edition. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1997:690.
Buyce ML., ed. Birth Defects Encyclopedia. Dover, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications; For: The Center for Birth Defects Information Services Inc; 1990:1403, 1405-07.
Fauci AS, et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th Ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc; 1998:2078-79.
Sarkany RP., Porphyria. From Sir Walter Raleigh to molecular biology. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;455:235-41.
Fodinger M, et al., Inherited disorders of iron metabolism. Kidney Int Suppl. 1999;69:S22-34.
Todd DJ., Clinical implications of the molecular biology of erythropoietic protoporphyria. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1998;11:207-13.
Murphy GM., Evaluation of porphyria. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1998;14:58-63.
Pawliuk R, et al., Long-term cure of the photosensitivity of murine erythropoietic protoporphyria by preselective gene therapy. Nat Med. 1999;5:768-73.
Frank J, et al., Erythropoietic protoporphyria: identification of novel mutations in the ferrochelatase gene and comparison of biochemical markers versus molecular analysis as diagnostic strategies. J Investig Med. 1999;47:278-84.
Asada N, et al., Recovery from acute cholestasis associated with erythropoietic protoporphyria treated by antibiotics. Clin Chim Acta. 1999;282:197-201.
Gorchien A, et al., Liver failure in protoporphyria: long-term treatment with oral charcoal. Hepatology. 1999;29:995-96.
Gouya L, et al., Inheritance in erythropoietic protoporphyria: a common wild-type ferrochelatase allelic variant with low expression accounts for clinical manifestation. Blood. 1999;93:2105-10.
Mathews-Roth M., The treatment of erythropoietic protoporphyria. Semin Liver Dis. 1998;18:425-26.
Muley SA, et al., Neuropathy in erythropoietic protoporphyrias. Neurology. 1998;51:262-65.
FROM THE INTERNET
McKusick VA., ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Baltimore. MD: The Johns Hopkins University; Entry No: 177000; Last Update: 9/3/98; Last Edit: 6/9/99.
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