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Kufs Disease

Synonyms of Kufs Disease

  • Adult-Onset Ceroidosis
  • Amaurotic Familial Idiocy, Adult
  • Ceroid-Lipofuscinosis, Adult form
  • Generalized Lipofuscinosis
  • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Adult Type

Disorder Subdivisions

  • No subdivisions found.

General Discussion

Kufs Disease is characterized by neurologic symptoms that may mimic mental illness, movement malfunction, and problems with sight. Kufs Disease is linked to excess accumulations of pigments (lipofuscins) dissolved in fat tissues that are found throughout the central nervous system. Kufs Disease, Batten Disease, Bielchowsky Disease, and Santavuori-Haltia Disease are different forms of the same family of disorders (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses [NCL]) that are differentiated by the age of onset. The various forms of this disorder are often extremely difficult to differentiate from other progressive degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

Symptoms

Kufs Disease is a very rare disorder marked initially by progressive weakness with diminished muscle coordination, seizures, rapid involuntary jerky movements (chorea), and, rarely, blindness. This disorder can be inherited as either a dominant or recessive trait and is usually slowly progressive.

Neurological symptoms of Kufs Disease usually begin after the age of twenty and can resemble mental illness. Confusion, stupor or psychotic behavior may mark the onset, leading to mental retardation and generalized convulsions. These symptoms are due to excess pigment in fat (lipofuscins) that accumulate in the brains of people with Kufs Disease.

People with Kufs Disease may present with a skin disorder involving dryness, roughness and/or scaliness (ichthyosis vulgaris). This condition arises as a result of excess production and/or retention of keratin (a principal component of skin). (For more information, choose "Ichthyosis" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database).

Causes

Kufs Disease is an inherited disorder that may involve either recessive (Kufs Disease) or dominant forms (Parry Disease). The recessive form (Kufs Disease) tends to be more serious than the dominant form.

Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic information for each individual. Human body cells normally have 46 chromosomes. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22 and the sex chromosomes are designated X and Y. Males have one X and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes. Each chromosome has a short arm designated "p" and a long arm designated "q". Chromosomes are further sub-divided into many bands that are numbered. For example, "chromosome 11p13" refers to band 13 on the short arm of chromosome 11. The numbered bands specify the location of the thousands of genes that are present on each chromosome.

Genetic diseases are determined by the combination of genes for a particular trait which are on the chromosomes received from the father and the mother.

Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and females.

Dominant genetic disorders occur when only a single copy of an abnormal gene is necessary for the appearance of the disease. The abnormal gene can be inherited from either parent, or can be the result of a new mutation (gene change) in the affected individual. The risk of passing the abnormal gene from affected parent to offspring is 50% for each pregnancy regardless of the sex of the resulting child.

All individuals carry 4-5 abnormal genes. Parents who are close relatives (consanguineous) have a higher chance than unrelated parents to both carry the same abnormal gene, which increases the risk to have children with a recessive genetic disorder.

Affected Populations

Kufs Disease usually becomes apparent after the age of twenty, whereas Batten Disease begins during early childhood and Jansky-Bielschowsky Disease begins during late childhood. There is an infantile form as well (Santavuori-Haltia Disease). All of these related lipid storage disorders are rare, occurring in an estimated 2-4 cases per 100,000 live births in the United States. The disorder appears to affect persons in Northern Europe (Finland, Sweden) more frequently than in other regions.

Related Disorders

There are many disorders caused by abnormal lipid metabolism.

Batten Disease is the juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). It is a hereditary lipid storage disorder transmitted as a recessive trait. Batten Disease is characterized by rapidly progressive neurological degeneration and vision failure (optic atrophy). Symptoms usually begin between five and seven years of age. Batten Disease occurs mostly in white families of Northern European Scandinavian ancestry. (For more information, choose "Batten" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

Gaucher's Disease is an inherited disease of lipid metabolism caused by the failure to produce the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. It is the most common of the fourteen known lipid storage disorders which includes Tay-Sachs Disease, Fabry's Disease, and Niemann-Pick Disease. There are three types of Gaucher's Disease - Type I, II and III. All three are characterized by the presence of Gaucher (lipid-laden) cells in the bone marrow and other organs such as the spleen and liver. (For more information, see below and choose "Gaucher," "Tay Sach", "Fabry" and "Niemann" as your search terms in the Rare Disease Database.)

Jansky-Bielschowsky Disease is a late infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. This disorder is due to an inborn error of lipid metabolism. It is inherited as a recessive trait and is found in all racial groups. Diagnosis of Jansky-Bielschowsky Disease is ascertained by the presence of ceroid-lipofuscin pigments, and it is differentiated from Batten Disease and Kufs Disease by the age of onset.

Tay-Sachs Disease is a genetic lipid storage disease that causes the progressive destruction of the central nervous system. It is most common among children of Eastern European Jewish heritage and becomes clinically apparent at about six months of age.

Sandhoff Disease, also known as Gangliosidosis GM2 Type 2, is an inherited variant of Tay-Sachs Disease. It has greater visceral involvement than other forms of Lipofuscinosis and affects people of all heritages. (For more information on this disorder, choose " Sandhoff" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

Niemann-Pick Disease is a rare, familial disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by the accumulation of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in the reticuloendothelial cells. There are at least five different forms of this type of lipidosis.

Standard Therapies

Treatment of Kufs Disease is symptomatic and supportive. Genetic counseling may be of benefit for families of affected patients. Service agencies which aid the mentally disabled could also be helpful to the patient and family.

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.

For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:

Tollfree: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
Email: prpl@cc.nih.gov

For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
www.centerwatch.com

Kufs Disease Resources

NORD Member Organizations:

(To become a member of NORD, an organization must meet established criteria and be approved by the NORD Board of Directors. If you're interested in becoming a member, please contact Susan Olivo, Membership Manager, at solivo@rarediseases.org.)

Other Organizations:

References

TEXTBOOKS
Dyken PR. Kuf Disease. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:547.

Adams RD, Victor M, Ropper AA. Eds. Principles of Neurology. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, NY; 1997:957-58, 967.

Menkes JH, Pine Jr JW, et al. Eds. Textbook of Child Neurology. 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore, MD; 1995:111-16.

REVIEW ARTICLES
Weimer JM, Kriscenski-Perry E, Elshatory Y, et al. The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: mutations in different proteins result in similar disease. Neuromolecular Med. 2002;1:111-24.

Sondhi D, Hackett NR, Apblett RL, et al. Feasibility of gene therapy for late neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1793-98.

Santavuori P, Vanhanen SL, Autti T. Clinical and neuroradiological diagnostic aspects of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses disorders. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2001;5 Suppl A:157-61.

Zhong N. Molecular genetic testing for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Adv Genet. 2001;45:141-58.

Zhong N, Wisniewski KE. Outlook for future treatment. Adv Genet. 2001;45:217-24.

Wisniewski KE, Kida E, Golabek AA, et al. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: classification and disgnosis. Adv Genet. 2001;45:1-34.

Gardiner RM. The molecular genetic basis of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Neurol Sci. 2000;21(3 suppl):S15-19.

FROM THE INTERNET
McKusick VA, Ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Entry Number; 204300: Last Edit Date; 6/14/2001.

McKusick VA, Ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Entry Number; 162350: Last Edit Date; 10/29/1999.

Batten Disease Support & Research Association (BDSRA). Batten Disease Facts and Figures. Last Revised: 1/31/03. 7pp.
www.bdsra.org/batten.htm

Amersham Health. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. nd. 1p.
www.amerhamhealth.com/medcyclopedia

Lupofuscinosis Information. Review date: 12/3/2001. 11pp.
www.1uphealth.com/health/lipofuscinosis.html

The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only. It should never be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. If you have questions regarding a medical condition, always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional. NORD’s reports provide a brief overview of rare diseases. For more specific information, we encourage you to contact your personal physician or the agencies listed as “Resources” on this report.

Report last updated: 2008/05/25 00:00:00 GMT+0

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