You are reading a NORD Rare Disease Report Abstract. NORD’s full collection of reports on over 1200 rare diseases is available to subscribers (click here for details). We are now also offering two full rare disease reports per day to visitors on our Web site.
NORD is very grateful to Clifford Kashtan, MD, FASN, Director, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School; Executive Director, Alport Syndrome Treatments and Outcomes Registry, for assistance in the preparation of this report.
Synonyms of Alport Syndrome
- Hematuria-Nephropathy Deafness
- Hemorrhagic familial nephritis
- Hereditary Deafness and Nephropathy
- Hereditary Nephritis
- Hereditary Nephritis With Sensory Deafness
- Autosomal Dominant Alport Syndrome (ADAS)
- Autosomal Recessive Alport Syndrome (ARAS)
- COL4A3-related nephropathy
- COL4A4-related nephropathy
- COL4A5-related nephropathy
- X-Linked Alport Syndrome (XLAS)
Alport syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive kidney disease and abnormalities of the ears and eyes. There are three genetic types. X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is the most common; in these families affected males typically have more severe disease than affected females. In autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS) the severity of disease in affected males and females is similar. There is also an autosomal dominant form (ADAS) which affects males and females with equal severity. The hallmark of the disease is the appearance of blood in the urine (hematuria) early in life, with progressive decline in kidney function (kidney insufficiency) that ultimately results in kidney failure, especially in affected males. About 50% of untreated males with XLAS develop kidney failure by age 25, increasing to 90% by age 40 and nearly 100% by age 60. Females with XLAS usually do not develop kidney insufficiency until later in life. They may not develop kidney insufficiency or failure at all, but the risk increases as they grow older. Both males and females with ARAS develop kidney failure, often in the teen-age years or early adulthood. ADAS tends to be a slowly progressive disorder in which renal insufficiency does not develop until well into adulthood. Individuals with Alport syndrome can also develop progressive hearing loss of varying severity and abnormalities of the eyes that usually do not result in impaired vision. XLAS is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene. ARAS is caused by mutations in both copies of either the COL4A3 or the COL4A4 gene. ADAS caused by mutations in one copy of the COL4A3 or COL4A4 gene. Alport syndrome is treated symptomatically and certain medications can potentially delay the progression of kidney disease and the onset of kidney failure. Ultimately, in many cases, a kidney transplant is required.
The disease we now know as Alport syndrome was first described in the British medical literature in the early years of the 20th century. In 1927 Dr. Cecil Alport published a paper describing the association of kidney disease and deafness in affected individuals. Many additional cases were described in the literature and the disorder was named after Dr. Alport in 1961. Alport syndrome is often discussed with a related disorder known as thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Many cases of TBMN are caused by different mutations in the same genes that cause the autosomal recessive and dominant forms of Alport syndrome. TBMN is characterized by persistent microscopic blood in the urine (hematuria) in a similar pattern as seen in individuals with Alport syndrome. However, unlike Alport syndrome, TBMN is rarely associated with symptoms outside of the kidney (extrarenal abnormalities) and additional kidney findings such as protein in the urine (proteinuria), high blood pressure (hypertension), kidney insufficiency, and kidney failure rarely develop. It is extremely important to distinguish these disorders from one another because TBMN is much more common and a much milder disorder. The spectrum of disease that includes TBMN and Alport syndrome is sometimes referred to as collagen IV-related nephropathies. For more information on TBMN see the Related Disorders section of this report.
Alport Syndrome Resources
NORD Member Organizations:
(To become a member of NORD, an organization must meet established criteria and be approved by the NORD Board of Directors. If you're interested in becoming a member, please contact Susan Olivo, Membership Manager, at firstname.lastname@example.org.)
The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only. It should never be used for diagnostic or treatment purposes. If you have questions regarding a medical condition, always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional. NORD’s reports provide a brief overview of rare diseases. For more specific information, we encourage you to contact your personal physician or the agencies listed as “Resources” on this report.
The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) web site, its databases, and the contents thereof are copyrighted by NORD. No part of the NORD web site, databases, or the contents may be copied in any way, including but not limited to the following: electronically downloading, storing in a retrieval system, or redistributing for any commercial purposes without the express written permission of NORD. Permission is hereby granted to print one hard copy of the information on an individual disease for your personal use, provided that such content is in no way modified, and the credit for the source (NORD) and NORD’s copyright notice are included on the printed copy. Any other electronic reproduction or other printed versions is strictly prohibited.
Copyright 1988, 1989, 2004, 2007, 2014
NORD's Rare Disease Information Database is copyrighted and may not be published without the written consent of NORD.